was settled in 1207, after King John granted a charter for a new,
planned town. 'In 432 St Patrick is said to have sailed from the
River Mersey on his mission to Ireland. The first mention of the
River Mersey was made in 1007 in a deed from the reign of Ethelread
II, the name is Old English from Maere, meaning boundary. In 1207
King John signed a Royal Charter, creating the borough of Liverpool,
on Tuesday 28 August 1207' (Liverpool City Council 1999).
The city really began to develop during the mid-17th
century as the main port linking England with Ireland. In the
17th and 18th centuries it developed an important colonial trade
and became the centre of the slave trade with Africa, Europe and
North America (Right - Liverpool 1660).
With the Industrial Revolution Liverpool became
the main port for the manufacturing region of Lancashire and West
Yorkshire. The first census of Liverpool was taken in 1272, when
the population was 840. 'The first Mersey ferry was established
by monks at Birkenhead Priory in 1282.
Liverpool's first Town Hall was built in 1515,
the second in 1676 and it was reconstructed in 1795 by James Wyatt
after it had been severely damaged by fire. Liverpool was granted
its coat of arms on 23 March 1797. It shows Neptune and Triton
standing beside a shield containing a 'Liver Bird'. Underneath
is the motto Deus Nobis H\'BEc Otia Fecit, a quotation from Virgil.
It is translated as 'God has given us these blessings'. In 1708
the first reference to scouse was made by Ned Ward in The Wooden
World Dissected' (Liverpool City Council 1999) .
Liverpool is today one of the UK's 'original industrial
cities and is still a major port in the NW of England located
on the north-eastern shore of the Mersey Estuary. The population
of the city itself is 468, 300 (1998); but the population of its
metropolitan area (Merseyside) is 1,400,000 (1998). The city centre
is 5 km (3 m) from the sea, but the cities magnificent docks extend
for 8 km (5 m) northward along this flat coast. The Mersey Estuary
is linked by s hip canal with Manchester and Leeds as well as
other industrial cities in the England. The Queensway Tunnel under
the Mersey links Liverpool with the industrial city of Birkenhead
to the south.
As a port Liverpool is second only to London in
national importance, and it is the main port for the highly industrialised
north of England. Traditionally, it used to handle most of Britain's
imported raw cotton and wool, but it also imports sugar, grain,
oilseeds, minerals, and crude petroleum and exports manufactured
goods of all kinds. It is developing as a container port, the
first 'Freeport' of its kind in the UK. Liverpool's manufacturing
industries were at first those associated with its foreign commerce,
such as grain milling and soap making, but automobile and electrical
engineering, chemicals, and petroleum refining have been added
and are now more important.
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Mike Royden's Local